Электропила action profile simple machines

Third Class Levers

In a third class lever, the effort is located between the load and the fulcrum. 

In a third class lever, the effort is located between the load and the fulcrum. If the fulcrum is closer to the load, then less effort is needed to move the load (2020 Let’s Talk Science). 

If the fulcrum is closer to the load, then less effort is needed to move the load. If the fulcrum is closer to the effort, then the load will move a greater distance. A pair of tweezers, swinging a baseball bat or using your arm to lift something are examples of third class levers. These levers are useful for making precise movements. 

Third class levers are used when swinging a tennis racquet (left), in staple-removers (centre) and when you lift objects using the muscles in your biceps (right) (Sources: Australian Paralympic Committee via Wikimedia Commons, Frank C. Müller via Wikimedia Commons and John Seb Barber via Wikimedia Commons).

Levers are very useful simple machines used for transferring force. You may not realize it, but you use levers every day!

Simple Machine Projects

Ready to make a simple machine project? We have so many fun simple machines projects ideas using simple items from around your house or classroom.

  • Archimedes Screw Exploration from High Hill Education is a simple project using a plastic bottle that showcases how this invention made hundreds of years ago was able to move material.
  • Kids will get a kick out of moving toys from downstairs to upstairs using this Banister Pulley from Hands on As We Grow
  • Kids are sure to be impressed by this working elevator model that explores pulleys from How to Adult
  • Let your kids imaginations run wild as they make their own Button Wheel & Axel Cars from Almost Unschoolers
  • This Corn Pulley from Play at Home Mom LLC is just what your preschooler needs in their sandbox to make simple machines come alive
  • Pulley Experiment for Kids from 123 Homeschool 4 Me uses common household items like cans to make a fun-to-try simple machine
  • No time to make your own simple machine, no worries! Do what Exploring Forces & Motion from A Day in First Grade did
  • Simple machines and art collide in this fun Inclined Planes Art from Strong Start
  • Explore the usefulness of Inclined Planes  in this “Egg”speriment from 123 Homeschool 4 Me

Simple Machine Projects

Ready to make a simple machine project? We have so many fun simple machines projects ideas using simple items from around your house or classroom.

  • Archimedes Screw Exploration from High Hill Education is a simple project using a plastic bottle that showcases how this invention made hundreds of years ago was able to move material.
  • Kids will get a kick out of moving toys from downstairs to upstairs using this Banister Pulley from Hands on As We Grow
  • Kids are sure to be impressed by this working elevator model that explores pulleys from How to Adult
  • Let your kids imaginations run wild as they make their own Button Wheel & Axel Cars from Almost Unschoolers
  • This Corn Pulley from Play at Home Mom LLC is just what your preschooler needs in their sandbox to make simple machines come alive
  • Pulley Experiment for Kids from 123 Homeschool 4 Me uses common household items like cans to make a fun-to-try simple machine
  • No time to make your own simple machine, no worries! Do what Exploring Forces & Motion from A Day in First Grade did
  • Simple machines and art collide in this fun Inclined Planes Art from Strong Start
  • Explore the usefulness of Inclined Planes  in this “Egg”speriment from 123 Homeschool 4 Me

Pulley

If we want to lift that same 100-lb. weight with a rope, we could attach a pulley to a beam above the weight. This would let us pull down instead of up on the rope, but it still requires 100 lbs. of force. However, if we were to use two pulleys — one attached to the overhead beam, and the other attached to the weight — and we were to attach one end of the rope to the beam, run it through the pulley on the weight and then through the pulley on the beam, we would only have to pull on the rope with 50 lbs. of force to lift the weight, although we would have to pull the rope 4 feet to lift the weight 2 feet. Again, we have traded increased distance for decreased force.

If we want to use even less force over an even greater distance, we can use a block and tackle. According to course materials from the University of South Carolina, “A block and tackle is a combination of pulleys which reduces the amount of force required to lift something. The trade-off is that a longer length of rope is required for a block and tackle to move something the same distance.”

As simple as pulleys are, they are still finding use in the most advanced new machines. For example, , a 3D printer that can build furniture-sized objects, employs a system of wires and computer-controlled pulleys anchored to the walls, floor, and ceiling.

Second Class Levers

In a second class lever, the load is located between the effort and the fulcrum.

In a second class lever, the load is located between the effort and the fulcrum. When the fulcrum is closer to the load, then less effort is needed to move the load (2020 Let’s Talk Science). 

If the load is closer to the fulcrum than the effort, then less effort will be required to move the load. If the load is closer to the effort than the fulcrum, then more effort will be required to move the load. A wheelbarrow, a bottle opener, and an oar are examples of second class levers. 

Second class levers are used in wheelbarrows (left), when going on tiptoes (centre) and when doing push-ups (Sources: MarkusHagenlocher via Wikimedia Commons, BruceBlaus via Wikimedia Commons and U.S. Navy via Wikimedia Commons).

Fun Science for Kids

Looking for lots more fun, science experiments for kids? You’ve GOT to try some of these outrageously fun science experiments for kids! We have so many fun, creative and easy science experiments for elementary age children:

  • 100 Amazing Food science experiments for kids – arranged by type of science
  • Colorful Capillary action science experiment (also known as walking water)
  • Lots of really cool dry ice experiments to try at home
  • Amaze kids with these 12 Hands on Science experiments with batteries
  • 24 Epic Solar system science projects to try this week
  • Fun Water balloon science experiment that explores density
  • 50 Fun Preschool science experiments the whole family will want to try
  • Amazing, heat-sensitive color changing slime
  • Simple Galaxy science project
  • Easy and Fun Dancing Raisins Experiment
  • Learn about weather as you find how to make a weather vane
  • Eye opening Eye science experiments
  • Easy-to- make Air pressure science project
  • Amazing POP rocks science experiment is one of our all-time favorite science experiments we like to do during the summer are
  • Stunning Chromatography Flowers are so pretty you’ll forget it was as science project!
  • How to Make a Lava Lamp – super easy and SO cool!
  • 30 Simple machines science projects kids will want to try
  • Easy, fascinating, and colorful project answering Why do Leaves Change Color Experiment

Classes of Lever Simple Machine

The position of the three points, namely, force, load, and the fulcrum, is responsible to decide the class of the lever. The following are the three classes of a lever simple machine:

1. First Class 

In this class of the lever, the fulcrum is located in the middle of the plane. The force is applied at one end of the plane, whereas the load is kept at the other end. For example, seesaw, scissors, plier, etc.

2. Second Class

In the second class of lever, the load is present at the middle of the plane. The fulcrum is located at one end, whereas the force is applied at the opposite end. For example, wheelbarrow, nutcracker, stapler, etc.

3. Third Class

In the third class of lever, the fulcrum is present at one end of the beam and the load is present at the opposite end. The force is applied to the middle of the plane. For example, a hockey stick, hammer, rake, etc.

Wheel and axle

The wheel is considered to be one of the most significant inventions in the history of the world. “Before , humans were severely limited in how much stuff we could transport over land, and how far,” wrote Natalie Wolchover in the Live Science article “Top 10 Inventions that Changed the World.” “Wheeled carts facilitated agriculture and commerce by enabling the transportation of goods to and from markets, as well as easing the burdens of people traveling great distances.”

The wheel greatly reduces the friction encountered when an object is moved over a surface. “If you put your file cabinet on a small cart with wheels, you can greatly reduce the force you need to apply to move the cabinet with constant speed,” according to the University of Tennessee.

In his book “Ancient Science: Prehistory-A.D. 500” (Gareth Stevens, 2010), Charlie Samuels writes, “In parts of the world, heavy objects such as rocks and boats were moved using log rollers. As the object moved forward, rollers were taken from behind and replaced in front.” This was the first step in the development of the wheel.

The great innovation, though, was in mounting a wheel on an axle. The wheel could be attached to an axle that was supported by a bearing, or it could be made to turn freely about the axle. This led to the development of carts, wagons and chariots. According to Samuels, archaeologists use the development of a wheel that rotates on an axle as an indicator of a relatively advanced civilization. The earliest evidence of wheels on axles is from about 3200 B.C. by the Sumerians. The Chinese independently invented the wheel in 2800 B.C.

Making Simple Machines with Household Items

These simple machine experiments are truly the best for exploring and learning while having FUN and creating something amazing!

  • This DIY Muscle Machine from KiwiCo is a fascinating project using pulleys.
  • I Spy Simple Machines from 123 Homeschool 4 Me is a free printable that not only teaches about simple machines, but gives instructions for a fun simple machines scavenger hunt too!
  • Bubble Machine Blower Machine from Teach Beside Me – this is such a fun idea kids will get excited about that explores the wheel simple machine
  • Lego Zipline from Little Bins for Little Hands is such a cool project to explore pulleys with kids
  • This easy to make pulley and lever board from Inspiration Labratories is the perfect introductory project to do indoors with kids of all ages!
  • Levers have never been more fun than when you create one out of recycled materials like The OT Toolbox
  • DIY Craft Stick Catapult is a fun-to-try activity learning about levers from Coffee Cups and Crayons
  • Make science come alive for kids with this Straw Roller coaster from Frugal Fun 4 Boys that explores inclined planes with kids!
  • Dive into history with this Ancient Civilization Irrigation Model that explores several simple machines from Teach Student Savvy

Examples of Lever Simple Machine

1. Nut Cracker 

A nutcracker is a prominent example of a second-class lever simple machine. Here, the fulcrum is located at one end of the machine, and the load or the nut, in this case, is placed in the middle. The force required to break the nut is applied to the end that is present opposite to the fulcrum.

2. Seesaw

Seesaws demonstrate the working of a first-class lever simple machine in the simplest possible way. Here, the fulcrum is located in the middle of an iron rod. The child sitting on one end of the beam acts as a load, while the child sitting on the opposite end applies the necessary force to move the load.

3. Scissors

The pivot along which the complete structure of a pair of scissors moves is located in the middle. The load, i.e., the paper or cloth is placed between the blades of the scissors at one end, whereas the user exerts mechanical force to the opposite end. The applied force gets transferred to the load through the fulcrum or the pivot, thereby causing the deformation of the load. Hence, a pair of scissors act as a first-class lever simple machine.

4. Plier 

In terms of working, a plier is very much similar to that of a pair of scissors. It is yet another example of a first-class lever machine where the force is applied at one end, the load is placed at the opposite end, and the balance point is present in the middle.

5. Stapler

The balance point or the fulcrum of a stapler is present at one edge, whereas the force is applied to the opposite end. The load or the sheets of paper are placed in the middle. Hence, a stapler is a classic example of second-class lever simple machines.

6. Wheelbarrow

A wheelbarrow consists of a metallic container that is attached with handles at one end and a wheel at the other end. Here, the wheel acts as a fulcrum or the balance point, the load is placed in the middle, and the push force is applied to the handles. Therefore, the arrangement forms a second-class lever simple machine.

7. Human body

Various joints in the human body function on the basic principle of a lever simple machine. These body parts include the elbow joint, Achilles tendon, the joint between hummers and radius-ulna, the joint between the skull and the atlas vertebrae, etc.

8. Broom

When a broom is used for sweeping dirt, it acts as a third-class lever simple machine. This is because the load is present at the one end of the broom, i.e., on the brush side, the effort or the force is applied in the middle, and the pivot is located at the top.

9. Hammer

Hammer is yet another example of a third-class lever machine. The force is applied at the centre, the load or the reaction of the force is observed at the end, and the pivot is formed on the opposite end.

10. Balance Scale

A balance scale makes use of a pivot in the middle of a beam. On either side of the scale, containers are attached that are used to contain the standard and the unknown weights. This means that the fulcrum is present in the middle, whereas the load and effort are present on either side of the beam. Hence, a balance scale is one of the best examples of a first-class lever simple machine.

Simple machines activities

With over 30 creative, fun, and unique ideas for teaching simple machines for kids you are bound to find the perfect project for your target audience. These are fun activiteis for kids in social isolation as you can make simple machines around the house .Your hardest choice is which one of these science projects to try first!

Simple Machines Projects

  • Inclined Planes for kids – explanation, activities, and resources
  • Wheel and Axle for kids lesson with projects and other fun ideas
  • Gears for Kids filled with lots of hands on activities
  • Wedges and Screw Simple Machine  Lesson for children
  • Levers and Pulleys lesson for students
  • I Spy simple machines for kids
  • MATCH – Simple Machines Game
  • 30 Simple Machines for Kids Projects
  • Free Simple Machines Worksheet to fold into a clever booklet
  • Candy Simple Machines Project
  • Pulley Experiment from recycled materials

Fun Science for Kids

Looking for lots more fun, science experiments for kids? You’ve GOT to try some of these outrageously fun science experiments for kids! We have so many fun, creative and easy science experiments for elementary age children:

  • 100 Amazing Food science experiments for kids – arranged by type of science
  • Colorful Capillary action science experiment (also known as walking water)
  • Lots of really cool dry ice experiments to try at home
  • Amaze kids with these 12 Hands on Science experiments with batteries
  • 24 Epic Solar system science projects to try this week
  • Fun Water balloon science experiment that explores density
  • 50 Fun Preschool science experiments the whole family will want to try
  • Amazing, heat-sensitive color changing slime
  • Simple Galaxy science project
  • Easy and Fun Dancing Raisins Experiment
  • Learn about weather as you find how to make a weather vane
  • Eye opening Eye science experiments
  • Easy-to- make Air pressure science project
  • Amazing POP rocks science experiment is one of our all-time favorite science experiments we like to do during the summer are
  • Stunning Chromatography Flowers are so pretty you’ll forget it was as science project!
  • How to Make a Lava Lamp – super easy and SO cool!
  • 30 Simple machines science projects kids will want to try
  • Easy, fascinating, and colorful project answering Why do Leaves Change Color Experiment
  • Free Printable Animal Classifications for Kids Cootie Catchers
  • 19 Edible science experiments – which delicious project will you try first?
  • HUGE Free Solar System Unit (coloring pages, hands on science projects, worksheets, and more!)
  • Pipe Cleaner Constellation Activity (As seen on Good Housekeeping!)
  • Teach kids about conductivity with this fun squishy circuits projects
  • Amazing, Heat Sensitive,  Color Changing Slime
  • Life Cycles for Kids (from penguin to sunflower and spider to turkey we have LOTS of life cycles to explore and learn about)
  • EASY, Colorful Oil and Water Science Experiment
  • Kids will be amazed as you change colors of white flowers with this Dying Flowers Science Experiment
  • This super cool Lego Zipline is fun and simple to make
  • Human Body Project
  • Check out this super cool look INSIDE a Volcano Project
  • Exploding Watermelon – science experiment that explores potential and kinetic energy with a big WOW moment!
  • Memorable Life Size Skeletal system science project – includes free printable template
  • Find LOTS more Easy Science Experiments for kids of all ages!
  • Money Math Games – lots of fun, clever, and FREE money games and activities for kids.

Looking for more fun, creative ways you can begin your free homeschool? We have over 1,000,000 pages of FREE Printable Worksheets including resources for: pre k worksheets, kindergarten worksheets, 1st grade worksheets, 2nd grade worksheets, 3rd grade worksheets, 4th grade worksheets, 5th grade worksheets, 6th grade worksheets, and more. Plus see our history lessons for kids, hands-on countries for kids, printable math games, language arts worksheets, sight word worksheets, free alphabet printables, and cvc word activities for kids of all ages!

Force multipliers

In addition to reducing friction, a wheel and axle can also serve as a force multiplier, . If a wheel is attached to an axle, and a force is used to turn the wheel, the rotational force, or torque, on the axle is much greater than the force applied to the rim of the wheel. Alternatively, a long handle can be attached to the axle to achieve a similar effect.

The other five machines all help humans increase and/or redirect the force applied to an object. In their book “Moving Big Things” (It’s about time, 2009), Janet L. Kolodner and her co-authors write, “Machines provide mechanical advantage to assist in moving objects. Mechanical advantage is the trade-off between force and distance.” In the following discussion of the simple machines that increase the force applied to their input, we will neglect the force of friction, because in most of these cases, the frictional force is very small compared to the input and output forces involved.

When a force is applied over a distance, it produces work. Mathematically, this is expressed as W = F × D. For example, to lift an object, we must do work to overcome the force due to gravity and move the object upward. To lift an object that is twice as heavy, it takes twice as much work to lift it the same distance. It also takes twice as much work to lift the same object twice as far. As indicated by the math, the main benefit of machines is that they allow us to do the same amount of work by applying a smaller amount of force over a greater distance.

A seesaw is an example of a lever. It’s a long beam balanced on a pivot. (Image credit: BestPhotoStudio Shutterstock)

Simple machines for kids

Are your elementary age students learning about simle machines for kids? If so the best way to learn is to do; try making some simple machine projects to see how helpful simple machines are in action!  Using these simple machines projects you can learn about simple machines like inclined planes, wheel & axel, wedges, levers, pulley, and screws with these fun science experiments for kids. Whether you are a parent, teacher, or homeschooler – you will love that these simple machines experients are created making simple machines with household items! So keep scrolling, pick a DIY simple machines to try, and get working on simple machines at home with your preschoolers, kindergartners, grade 1, grade 2, grade 3, grade 4, grade 5, and grade 6 students!

Classes of Lever Simple Machine

The position of the three points, namely, force, load, and the fulcrum, is responsible to decide the class of the lever. The following are the three classes of a lever simple machine:

1. First Class 

In this class of the lever, the fulcrum is located in the middle of the plane. The force is applied at one end of the plane, whereas the load is kept at the other end. For example, seesaw, scissors, plier, etc.

2. Second Class

In the second class of lever, the load is present at the middle of the plane. The fulcrum is located at one end, whereas the force is applied at the opposite end. For example, wheelbarrow, nutcracker, stapler, etc.

3. Third Class

In the third class of lever, the fulcrum is present at one end of the beam and the load is present at the opposite end. The force is applied to the middle of the plane. For example, a hockey stick, hammer, rake, etc.

Types

Simple machines reduce effort by either transferring a force, changing the direction of force, increasing the magnitude of force, or increasing the speed of force. The six different kinds are explained below.

Inclined Plane

The basic function of an inclined plane is to be able to either lift up or to lower an object. The surface of a plane is flat and when placed in a slanted manner it is known as an inclined plane. The principle on which it works is that you can move a large bulk for a long distance by applying slight force. Moving an object on an inclined or slanted surface is much easier than a straight surface.

Lever

The lever which is a bar-like rigid object moves against a turning point to move a third object. The turning point against which it moves is known as the fulcrum and the closer the object that needs to be moved is to the fulcrum, the easier it is to move the former. There are three types of levers; first-class lever, second class lever, and third class lever.

Pulley

In this simple machine one end of a cord is attached to the load that needs to be moved, placed over a wheel and as you pull on one side, according to the direction in which you exert force, you can move the load forward or backward. If you are looking for interactive simple machines, then try to make a model of a flag which is being hoisted. It uses the pulley system.

Screw

Many people consider screw to be a modified version of the inclined plane which differs in shape because of its helical appearance. It uses the principle of transfer of energy, converting rotational force into linear force in the process of performing a task. On one end of an inclined plane is a helical and on the other end is a provision that you can use to turn it. Screws are used to hold objects together and even to raise weights.

Wedge

It is made of two inclined planes and can move. The point of contact of the two inclined planes results in a sharp edge which can be used to cut and split objects and to hold them together. A wedge is shaped in such a manner that it is triangular in appearance. Examples of wedges that we use in daily life include forks, knives, and even our teeth.

Wheel and Axle

There are many games that you can play to explain the concept of the wheel and axle. You can use simple toys to explain the principle of this simple machine. The axle is the rod that is speared through the wheel to rotate it. The axle converts rotational force into linear force propelling the object forward.

Using lesson plans, you can come up with many ideas for simple machines that can be made easily. Most machines that we use nowadays have their basis in the principles on which these simple machines work.

Inclined Planes

An inclined plane is exactly what its name says. It’s a plane that is inclined, or in other words, slanted. This simple machine connects a lower level to a higher level, making it easy to move objects. The slanting surface supports some weight of an object as it moving upwards, making it utilize less force. However, the object must move at a longer distance than it would on a straight surface. An object will use less force to move upward in an inclined plane with a more gradual slope.

One of the most common applications of inclined planes is getting heavy objects into a truck using a ramp. Less force is required to get the object inside of the vehicle, the tradeoff being covering a longer distance.

Other types of inclined planes include:

  • Wheelchair ramp
  • Slide
  • Slanted roof
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